With regard to the environment, the air traffic at Prague-Ruzyně airport (hereinafter also “LKPR”) causes some negative effects. The most serious perceived in the vicinity is noise from the air traffic, which is the basic factor impacting the conflict-free existence of the airport and development of the airport’s capacity. The noise issue is thus becoming an increasingly important topic. In this context Letiště Praha, a. s. (hereinafter also the “Airport”) as LKPR’s operator, bearing the responsibility for noise from air traffic, is addressing this topic in compliance with the Noise Strategy of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO), which is based on the concept of “a balanced approach to the noise control”. The balanced approach principle consists of accomplishing the maximum environmental benefits with a cost-efficient solution. The balanced approach is based on four pillars:
- noise reduction at the source,
- landscape planning and management,
- anti-noise operational measures, and
- operational restrictions.
The solution to the problem related to noise from air traffic is designed in accordance with the relevant legislation of the Czech Republic and the European Union.
Noise reduction at the source
Operations at LKPR are affected by the noise fee policy which has been introduced in accordance with the ICAO’s Policies on Charges for Airports and Air Navigation Services, 9th edition, 2012, discussed in compliance with Directive 12/2009/EC, transposed into Law no 49/1997 Sb. on civil aviation, as amended.
The principle of the noise fee is to reduce noise at the Airport and in its vicinity, not to make a profit. The purpose of the fee policy is to motivate airline operators to use quieter aircraft on routes to and from Prague. Therefore, the airline companies should preferably invest in reducing noise at the source, rather than spending money on noise fees.
In addition to the standard noise fee, LKPR has introduced fees for non-compliance with slot coordination and for failure to adhere to night traffic operations which are aimed at encouraging airline companies to operate the aircraft specified by the Airport during the night.
The revenues from noise fees are used to cover the costs of the noise problem solutions, i.e. monitoring noise from air traffic, preparing noise studies and implementing noise barrier measures next to protected buildings in the Noise Protection Zone, and particularly the replacement of windows and French doors.
The method for calculating and applying noise fees is described in AIP CR GEN 220.127.116.11 Noise fee – Prague-Ruzyně Airport.
Development of aircraft representation in noise categories – landings in %
The main purpose of landscape planning is to set such rules as to prevent an increase in the number of people affected by above-limit noise. Using a balanced approach, landscape planning should take into consideration the development of residential areas as well as the development of the Airport including the definition of affected areas for long-term air traffic and areas for transport infrastructure. The LKPR operator cooperates with the relevant authorities and provides information about development plans.
A NPZ has been established around LKPR in compliance with Act no 258/2000 Sb. on public health protection. It is an exactly defined area in the vicinity of LKPR (see Location of stationary measuring stations and the NPZ of Prague-Ruzyně Airport), where exceeding health limits for noise from air traffic is expected in the outdoor protected zone and outdoor protected zone of buildings over the rather long term. The limits are LAeqD = 60dB for daytime and LAeqN = 50dB for nighttime. The specified limits cannot be exceeded outside the NPZ. The health limits are related to a characteristic air-traffic day (see the definition below). The Airport operator is obliged to ensure that the health limits for noise are observed at least inside buildings in the NPZ.
A characteristic air-traffic day means the average operating conditions at the Airport that have been derived for long-term noise assessment. The characteristic air-traffic day is defined by the number of take-offs and landings of all the aeroplanes at a given airport in 24 hours and calculated as an average of the total number of take-offs and landings of aeroplanes of all airport users from 1 May to 31 October of a calendar year in all the operating directions of runways; the number for daytime is differentiated from that for nighttime.
Noise barrier measures
In order to meet the limit for noise from air traffic applicable to protected interiors, windows and French doors with the prescribed sound reduction values have been replaced in the relevant buildings. The replacement started in 1998 and covered residential and family houses, school and kindergarten buildings, buildings for healthcare and social purposes and buildings of similar functions in villages and City Districts included in the Noise Protection Zone of Prague-Ruzyně Airport. The replacement programme is now complete and the total costs amounted to more than CZK 600 million.
Anti-noise operational measures
Operational measures have a fundamental impact on operations at the airport. When they are set, attention must be paid not only to benefits with regard to noise, but also to operational safety and airport capacity and airspace. The main objective is that the air traffic should affect as few citizens as possible and that a reasonably extent of trouble-free development should be enabled in residential areas in the vicinity of the airports.
- Distribution of operations across runways. RWY 06/24 is used as a priority to avoid aeroplanes flying over densely populated areas of the capital city of Prague.
- Anti-noise procedures for inbound flights where the landing gradient on the final approach must not be less than 3 degrees (5.2%) and the aeroplane must settle on this before descending below a prescribed altitude.
- Anti-noise procedures for outbound flights when the aeroplane cannot divert from the axis of RWY or SID until it reaches the required distance from the Airport.
- Rules for the reduction of reverse thrust.
- Rules for carrying out engine tests.
- Rules for using an uninterruptible power supply.
Due to meteorological and technical conditions, it may happen that the defined operational noise limits cannot be observed for flight safety reasons. The international regulations clearly define the conditions under which anti-noise procedures cannot prevail.
You can find a diagram explaining the marking of individual runways and the principles of their use in the following figure.
Unlike at take-off, an aeroplane’s altitude at landing can be relatively precisely specified thanks to the determined angle of descending, accurate radio navigation with small variances and reduction of windage of the aeroplane thanks to the forbidden visual approach. The values for each locality near the axes of both runways can be found here:
- RWY 24 (Zdiby, Roztoky, Horoměřice)
- RWY 06 (Malé Kyšice, Unhošť)
- RWY 30 (Hlubočepy, Jinonice, Bílá Hora)
- RWY 12 (Kladno, Hřebeč, Dobrovíz)
A specific description of the above-mentioned noise reduction procedures, including exceptions, is published in AIP CR LKPR AD 2. 21 Noise Reduction Procedures. Before publishing in AIP, any amendments are subject to approval by the Czech MoT.
Anti-noise operational measures affect many parties at the Airport as well as the population living near the Airport. Before they are introduced, operational measures must be evaluated in cooperation with the other participants from all of the perspectives of the balanced approach. For this reason, CEM (Collaborative Environmental Management) is put into practice. The CEM working group consists of representatives of Air Navigation Services, airline companies based at the Airport, Prague Airport and the Civil Aviation Authority.
In compliance with the legislation in force, operational restrictions represent an instrument which is opted for only as the last resort, when the expected outcome cannot be achieved by other means, particularly operational measures. Operational restrictions mean measures to reduce noise which restrict access to the Airport or reduce its operation capacity, or partial operational restrictions which relate to, for example, a certain time of day or only some runways.
Restricted access to the Airport for aircraft without the corresponding certification according to ICAO, Annex 16/I.
Restricted operation at night.
A specific description of the above-mentioned operational restrictions is published in AIP CR LKPR AD 2. 21 Noise Reduction Procedures. Before publishing in AIP, potential amendments are subject to approval by the Czech MoT.
Some operational measures and operational restrictions are designed, evaluated and checked subsequently via the air traffic noise and trajectory monitoring system.
Air traffic noise and trajectory monitoring
LKPR uses TANOS, a system which monitors noise from air traffic and flight trajectories produced by the German company Topsonic. The system is operated by an accredited laboratory, and Prague Airport (Letiště Praha, a. s.) has access to the system at the user level.
Air traffic noise and trajectory monitoring is a sophisticated necessary instrument for Prague Airport which helps to deal with the noise issue and minimise negative impacts.
The monitoring system includes:
- 14 stationary measuring stations including 14 weather stations
- 1 mobile measuring station
- Working terminals of Prague Airport’s operator
- Supplier’s operating centres
- Hardware and software for data transfer and processing
The system ensures the continues monitoring of the sound pressure level, including the attendant weather conditions. The measured data are transferred to a server where noise events are correlated with each flight and stored. Flight trajectories can be displayed in the 2D and 3D modes.
The values of equivalent levels of sound pressure presented in the monthly reports cannot yet be compared with the health limits determined in Article 12 (5) of Government Regulation no 272/2011 Sb. on the protection of health against unfavourable impacts of noise and vibrations.
The health limits at the equivalent level of sound pressure A from air traffic for daytime and nighttime are related to a characteristic air-traffic day, which is defined by the applicable Guideline ref. no OVZ-32.0-19.02.2007/6306 for measuring and evaluating noise from air traffic, issued by the Public Health Officer of the Czech Republic. A characteristic air-traffic day means an average air-traffic day in the six-month period with the heaviest air traffic (May to October). The final values of the equivalent levels of sound pressure for daytime and nighttime in each locality of measurement which are comparable with the health limit will be available early next year, after evaluation of the standard air-traffic of the current year.
Mobile monitoring of noise
The stationary noise measurement stations are complemented by mobile stations. Prague Airport carries out two types of measurement by mobile stations.
- Accredited measurement of noise from air traffic in the outdoor protected zone/outdoor protected zone of buildings via external testing laboratory (mobile station).
- Non-accredited measurement of noise from air traffic by our own instruments (hand-held noise measuring instruments) in outdoor and indoor protected zones.
Accredited measurement of noise from air traffic
Measurement by mobile stations is carried out as needed at places without a stationary station monitoring noise continuously. Detailed information about accredited noise measurement by mobile stations and implementation conditions can be obtained by emailing firstname.lastname@example.org.
Non-accredited measurement of noise by our own instruments
Since 2014, Prague Airport has been measuring noise from air traffic in protected interiors of buildings in the Noise Protection Zone. Measurement and data processing are carried out according to a methodology developed in cooperation with the National Reference Laboratory of Municipal Noise, which is part of the Ostrava National Health Institute (Státní zdravotní ústav Ostrava). Noise is measured using a two-channel analyser, which is convenient for simultaneous measurement both inside and outside a building. When compared to the previous requirements of the standards and guidelines, this methodology reduces measurement duration considerably, while maintaining the accuracy of results.
Advantages of noise measurement by our own instruments:
- Monitoring trends in the noise situation in daytime and nighttime away from places with permanent monitoring.
- Measurement in the outdoor protected zone away from places with permanent monitoring, especially at times when traffic is transferred to secondary RWY 12/30.
- Measurement can be carried out as needed in response to a complaint.
- It enables a quick response to a change in traffic and reduces measurement costs substantially.
So far, the health limit has not been exceeded in any of the measurement localities.
Further information about non-accredited measurement by mobile stations and their implementation conditions can be obtained by emailing email@example.com.
In accordance with Article 42b of Act no 49/1997 Sb. on civil aviation and on amendments and supplements of Act no 455/1991 Sb. on trade (Trade Law), as subsequently amended, and Regulation no 108/1998 Sb. implementing Act no 49/1997 Sb. on civil aviation and on amendments and supplements of Act no 455/1991 Sb. on trade (Trade Law), as subsequently amended, the operator of Prague-Ruzyně Airport presented the Ministry of Transport of the Czech Republic with:
Opinion by the Ministry of Transport on the Report on the noise situation at Prague-Ruzyně Airport in 2008–2009
Opinion by the Ministry of Transport Report on the noise situation at Prague-Ruzyně Airport in 2010–2011
Opinion by the Ministry of Transport Report on the noise situation at Prague-Ruzyně Airport in 2012–2013
Opinion by the Ministry of Transport Report on the noise situation at Prague-Ruzyně Airport in 2014–2015
V souladu s § 42a Zákona č. 49/1997 Sb., o civilním letectví v platném znění, předložil provozovatel letiště Praha Ruzyně Úřadu pro civilní letectví k:
- 31. 3. 2019 Zprávu o hlukové situaci na letišti Praha Ruzyně za roky 2016 a 2017
- Přílohy ke stažení:
- Příloha č. 2
Výsledné ekvivalentní hladiny akustického tlaku LAeq,T pro denní a noční dobu v roce 2017 (PDF, 550 kB)
- Příloha č. 3
Výsledky akreditovaného mobilního měření v letech 2016 a 2017 (PDF, 478 kB)
- Příloha č. 4
Izofony Ldvn v dB pro letecký provoz na letišti Praha/Ruzyně pro celou denní dobu – rok 2016 (PDF, 12,4 MB)
- Příloha č. 5
Izofony Ln v dB pro letecký provoz na letišti Praha/Ruzyně v noční době – rok 2016 (PDF, 13 MB)
- Příloha č. 6
Izofony Ldvn v dB pro letecký provoz na letišti Praha/Ruzyně pro celou denní dobu – rok 2017 (PDF, 12,7 MB)
- Příloha č. 7
Izofony Ln v dB pro letecký provoz na letišti Praha/Ruzyně v noční době – rok 2017 (PDF, 13,3 MB)
- Příloha č. 8
Izofony LAeq D v dB pro letecký provoz na letišti Praha/Ruzyně v denní době – rok 2016 (PDF, 10,5 MB)
- Příloha č. 9
Izofony LAeq N v dB pro letecký provoz na letišti Praha/Ruzyně v noční době – rok 2016 (PDF, 13,3 MB)
- Příloha č. 10
Izofony LAeq D v dB pro letecký provoz na letišti Praha/Ruzyně v denní době – rok 2017 (PDF, 11 MB)
- Příloha č. 11
Izofony LAeq N v dB pro letecký provoz na letišti Praha/Ruzyně v noční době – rok 2017 (PDF, 13,2 MB)
- Přílohy ke stažení: